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Thyroid disease is clinically defined as an enlarged thyroid gland. And one of the most important thyroid causes in the Indian subcontinent is nutritional deficiency, iodine primarily. Causes need not precisely need a nutritional stand point as any change in the basic physiology of the gland can cause a homogenous enlargement. Often times, the pituitary gland is not able to secrete the hormone TSH in adequate amounts resulting in the disease.
Causes are as follows :
1. Immune system disorders
2. Grave’s disease
3. Thyroid neoplasms (thyroid nodule, thyroid cancer)
4. Malignancy eg. Breast cancer
All the above thyroid causes result in inflammation of the thyroid gland and hence affect the thyroid function resulting in thyroid disease.
Thyroid disease is more of a metabolic derangement that is evident in the blood biochemistry. And this presentation on the paper of thyroid disease isn't in sync with the thyroid symptoms at times. Few of the thyroid disease symptoms that need attention if diagnosis is to be clinched.
Presenting complaints are as follows :
1. Neck swelling
2. Difficulty swallowing/breathing
3. Hoarseness in voice
5. Dry skin
6. Blood pressure derangements